For a comprehensive guide to weave cultural information into assessment and intervention planning, McGoldrick, et al. They found that younger customers under 25 reported spending more time shopping when exposed to easy-listening music, whereas older customers 25 and over thought they were in the store longer when exposed to Top-Forty music.
In order to qualify as being handled, an item must have been pulled from the shelf by a customer. At least two explanations for the results are suggested under this scenario.
The results of the present study support this contention. However, numerous other differences may have existed between the two groups, thus biasing our interpretation of the observed variation in total sales by music condition.
The observer recorded the number of items purchased, the shelf location of the items purchased, and, since he had access to the register, the total dollar amount of each customer's purchase.
The Yalch and Spangenberg study raises the possibility that the given musical genres can produce highly specific perceptions by consumers. Yalch and Spangenberg speculated that shoppers who encounter non-typical environmental factors i.
Many customers, in fact, commented that they had never visited a wine cellar. Patrons were also classified into the following customer age categories: Crowley, and Ronald W. Monoculturalism assumes rejection of differences and a belief in the superiority of a dominant culture, while multiculturalism represents acceptance, appreciation, utilization, and celebration of similarity and differences see Development of Multicultural Social Work Practice.
Hoyerhowever, relied on a single observer to measure the information search and choice processes of supermarket shoppers. Thus, there were sixteen observations for all dependent variables, each representing an average for the store on a given night, included in the ANOVAs reported below.
The University of Iowa Press. The extreme Kharijite position was that Muslims who commit grave sins effectively reject their religion, entering the ranks of apostates, and therefore deserve capital punishment.
But the diametrically opposed view, and quite possibly the more common one is [that] While the identified references are focused on social work applications, relevant ones dealing with cross-cultural counseling, multicultural education, and organizational diversity are selected.
It is possible that shoppers, being somewhat unfamiliar with wine cellars and wines in general, used the classical music as a cue and inferred that the cellar contained mostly high priced merchandise. Each of the two experimental conditions i. In the Top-Forty music condition, the following sections were played: Perhaps musical tempo, rather than genre, produces a stronger influence on these variables see Milliman, The research that has appeared tends to be limited to a rather narrow range of consumer reactions.
Further, no data were collected on dates where the researchers were able to identify exogenous factors i. MacInnis and Park's notion that music is more persuasive when it "fits" the persuasion context is employed to account for these results.
The observer also counted the number of items handled.
Although Kotler requested that further research be conducted regarding the impact of these in-store factors on behavior, the academic literature on this topic remains rather sparse.
If a couple or group of consumers were judged to consist of members belonging to more than one age category, this variable was coded as missing data.The Oxford History of Islam [John L.
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